J Insect Sci. Published online Sep Copyright This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel Diptera: Tephritidae complex constitute well-recognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand.

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J Insect Sci. Published online Sep Copyright This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel Diptera: Tephritidae complex constitute well-recognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand.

The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species.

A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant.

Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. Keywords: Tephritidae, thermal constant, linear model, peninsular Thailand Introduction The genus Bactrocera Macquart Diptera: Tephritidae is recognized worldwide for its destructive impact on agriculture. Besides causing billions of dollars in direct losses to a wide variety of fruit, vegetables, and flower crops e.

Growers and governments face rising costs as they attempt to meet demands for food. Therefore, pest-free or low-pest density zones are being advocated worldwide for fruit exports with minimal or zero quarantine restrictions Carroll et al.

The damage, if uncontrolled, may result in a total loss of the crop in question Yong et al. The genus Bactrocera is known to be largely endemic to Asia and the Pacific. Among the serious pest species, several are indigenous to peninsular Thailand and Malaysia and are members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel complex, including B.

Bactrocera carambolae and B. Drew8yt and Hancock , Ranganath and Veenakumari , Allwood et al. Their work revealed that B. They reported 76 and host species for B. Among the listed hosts, guava was found to be the most infested compared with any other host species listed. Guava is one of the most ubiquitous fruits appearing at all stalls and markets in Thailand.

It is an important source of income and represents an important part of the gastronomic culture for Thai people Victor The fruit is produced at small scale and sometimes even at subsistence-level farming. For several tropical fruits, the production is mainly by smallholder producers and largely intended for local consumption in the rapidly expanding local-urban green market Lux Occurrence of large populations of fruit fly species leads to economic losses for the smallholder farmers and a reduced source of essential dietary components, especially vitamins and minerals, to local and urban human populations Mwatawala et al.

Tephritid distribution and abundance depend on several abiotic factors e. This study focused on the effect of temperature on the development of preimaginal stages of B. Working either in the laboratory or in the field, researchers demonstrated that temperature is the main abiotic factor affecting survival and development of many tephritid species Fletcher , Vargas et al. Two fundamental thermal parameters that express how the rate of development of ectotherms depends on temperature are the lower threshold temperature for development T min : temperature below which no measurable development takes place and the thermal constant K number of degree days [DD] above temperature T min for completion of development Higley et al.

There is no published report on the effect of these important variables on B. Therefore, this study was aimed at identifying and comparing the effect of six constant temperatures on the development and survival of immature stages of these flies. The study also tested and revealed how the flies survive on the food from their host plant Psidium guajava L.

Myrtales: Myrtaceae. These fly species are known to cohabitate on guava fruits in the field and therefore exhibit niche overlap via fruit Duyck et al. The results from this study will be useful in optimizing rearing procedures and in understanding and predicting B. Furthermore, our findings may help in the development of improved ecological management strategies for these flies. Materials and Methods Insect culture This study was conducted on the third filial generation of laboratory-reared fruit flies.

Uninfested guava fruits and fresh maize cobs were obtained from the fruit market and washed with water. A guava fruit weighing ca. Of the de-husked fresh maize, g were ground in a blending machine Philips HR, www. Furthermore, 30 g of toilet tissue paper Tesco Lotus Ltd, www. The guava, maize, and tissue paper were blended, and yeast extract Bacton Dickson and Company, www.

Table 1. Each dome was pierced with an entomological pin 4 cm long and 0. Each dome was placed in a Petri dish of 9 cm diameter lined with a black-colored Whatman 9. Before the domes were placed in Petri dishes, they were sprayed with water to simulate the surface of fruits in order to facilitate oviposition. Eggs were collected with a camel-hair brush over a black background within 4 hr after oviposition.

These eggs were carefully observed through a stereo microscope and counted. Effect of temperature on development and survival of B. Approximately 50 g of guava diet was placed in clean Petri dishes. The surface of the diet was covered with a single layer of toilet tissue paper 3 cm diameter. Fifty eggs of each species were counted under a stereo microscope.

These were carefully arranged in a line on the tissue paper in the Petri dishes, which were placed individually in rectangular rearing containers Plexiglas boxes of 20x15x7 cm covered with a dark cut-to-fit cardboard paper. Central holes 8. The rearing containers were immediately transferred to thermostatically controlled environmental chambers Contherm Phytotron Climate Simulator, Contherm Scientific Ltd. Hatching from eggs was determined by observing the eggs at 3 hr intervals under a stereo microscope.

Larva stage. After the larvae hatched, the dark, cut-to-fit cardboard papers around the Plexiglas boxes were removed. The bottoms of the Plexiglas boxes were lined with sterilized sawdust to a thickness of 1 cm to offer substrate for pupation.

The boxes were checked for pupae after six days, and pupae were separated from the sawdust every 6 hr by sifting. Pupa stage.

The pupae resulting from the culture were transferred into 10 x7. Data recording The mortality, duration, and developmental rate of different stages were recorded. Stage-specific survival rates were determined as a proportion of individuals alive at the end of each stage in relation to the initial number.

The final numbers of emerged adults were calculated as the product of survival rates in the different stages from egg to adult Vargas et al. This approach was based on the assumption that above some lower threshold for development, temperature-developmental rate relationships are linear, and therefore a constant number of heat units joules above this threshold are needed to complete development Arnold , Fletcher Regression analysis was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature t defined as the temperature below which there is no measurable development for eggs, larvae, and pupae Liu et al.

The t was determined by extrapolation from the regression line back to the x-axis or by using Equation 1 Wagner et al. The thermal constant K the degree days above the lower threshold temperature required to complete development was calculated from the regression equation by using Equation 2 Pruess , Vargas et al.

Considering various replicates as multiple observations at each temperature, developmental time days and adult emergence were compared by using one-way analysis of variance ANOVA.

All statistical analyses were performed in Sigmaplot statistical package version Results Relationship between temperature and developmental rate in B.


Bactrocera papayae

Description[ edit ] B. Flies that belong to this family are usually small to medium-sized with colorful markings. In particular, B. Two vertical yellow markings on the thorax and the dark T-shaped marking on the abdomen differentiate this species of fly from its close relatives.


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