COUMARIN FROM APIACEAE PDF

Description[ edit ] Most Apiaceae are annual , biennial or perennial herbs frequently with the leaves aggregated toward the base , though a minority are woody shrubs or small trees such as Bupleurum fruticosum. The leaves may be petiolate or sessile. There are no stipules but the petioles are frequently sheathing and the leaves may be perfoliate. The leaf blade is usually dissected, ternate or pinnatifid , but simple and entire in some genera, e. The defining characteristic of this family is the inflorescence , the flowers nearly always aggregated in terminal umbels , that may be simple or more commonly compound, often umbelliform cymes. The flowers are usually perfect hermaphroditic and actinomorphic , but there may be zygomorphic flowers at the edge of the umbel, as in carrot Daucus carota and coriander , with petals of unequal size, the ones pointing outward from the umbel larger than the ones pointing inward.

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Description[ edit ] Most Apiaceae are annual , biennial or perennial herbs frequently with the leaves aggregated toward the base , though a minority are woody shrubs or small trees such as Bupleurum fruticosum. The leaves may be petiolate or sessile. There are no stipules but the petioles are frequently sheathing and the leaves may be perfoliate. The leaf blade is usually dissected, ternate or pinnatifid , but simple and entire in some genera, e. The defining characteristic of this family is the inflorescence , the flowers nearly always aggregated in terminal umbels , that may be simple or more commonly compound, often umbelliform cymes.

The flowers are usually perfect hermaphroditic and actinomorphic , but there may be zygomorphic flowers at the edge of the umbel, as in carrot Daucus carota and coriander , with petals of unequal size, the ones pointing outward from the umbel larger than the ones pointing inward. Some are andromonoecious, polygamomonoecious, or even dioecious as in Acronema , with a distinct calyx and corolla , but the calyx is often highly reduced, to the point of being undetectable in many species, while the corolla can be white, yellow, pink or purple.

The flowers are nearly perfectly pentamerous, with five petals , sepals , and stamens. The androecium consists of five stamens, but there is often variation in the functionality of the stamens even within a single inflorescence. Some flowers are functionally staminate where a pistil may be present but has no ovules capable of being fertilized while others are functionally pistillate where stamens are present but their anthers do not produce viable pollen. Pollination of one flower by the pollen of a different flower of the same plant geitonogamy is common.

The gynoecium consists of two carpels fused into a single, bicarpellate pistil with an inferior ovary. Stylopodia support two styles and secrete nectar, attracting pollinators like flies, mosquitoes, gnats, beetles, moths, and bees. The fruit is a schizocarp consisting of two fused carpels that separate at maturity into two mericarps, each containing a single seed. The fruits of many species are dispersed by wind but others such as those of Daucus spp.

The seeds have an oily endosperm [5] [6] and often contain essential oils, containing aromatic compounds that are responsible for the flavour of commercially important umbelliferous seed such as anise , cumin and coriander. The shape and details of the ornamentation of the ripe fruits are important for identification to species level.

It is closely related to Araliaceae and the boundaries between these families remain unclear. Traditionally groups within the family have been delimited largely based on fruit morphology , and the results from this have not been congruent with the more recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. The subfamilial and tribal classification for the family is currently in a state of flux, with many of the groups being found to be grossly paraphyletic or polyphyletic.

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Coumarin: An emerging antiviral agent

Introduction Phytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in the plant kingdom. Some are responsible for the organoleptic properties of the natural sources in which they are present. The term is generally used to refer to those chemicals that may have biological significance, for example carotenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, or chromones, but not all are established as essential nutrients. There may be as many as 4, different phytochemicals having potential activity against several diseases such as cancer and metabolic or degenerative diseases. Among them, coumarins are a family of benzopyrones 1,2-benzopyrones or 2Hbenzopyranones widely distributed in the nature.

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COUMARIN FROM APIACEAE PDF

Abstract Viral infections are responsible for many illnesses, and recent outbreaks have raised public health concerns. Despite the availability of many antiviral drugs, they are often unsuccessful due to the generation of viral mutants and less effective against their target virus. Identifying novel antiviral drugs is therefore of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. Coumarin is one such natural compound that is a potential drug candidate owing to its properties of stability, solubility, and low toxicity.

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