CS2302 COMPUTER NETWORKS 2 MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS PDF

What are the network support layers and the user support layers? Network support layers: The network support layers are Physical layer, Data link layer and Network layer. These deals with electrical specifications, physical connection, transport timing and reliability. User support layers: The user support layers are: Session layer, Presentation layer, Application layer.

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Answer: Through Transmission the data gets transferred from source to destination only one way. It is treated as the physical movement of data. Communication means the process of sending and receiving data between two media data is transferred between source and destination in both ways. Q 27 Describe the layers of the OSI model? Answer: OSI model stands for Open System Interconnection It is a framework that guides the applications on how they can communicate in a network. OSI model has seven layers.

They are listed below, Physical Layer: Deals with transmission and reception of unstructured data through a physical medium. Data Link Layer: Helps in transferring error-free data frames between nodes. Network Layer: Decides the physical path that should be taken by the data as per the network conditions. Transport Layer: Ensures that the messages are delivered in sequence and without any loss or duplication. Session Layer: Helps in establishing a session between processes of different stations.

Presentation Layer: Formats the data as per the need and presents the same to the Application layer. Application Layer: Serves as the mediator between Users and processes of applications. Q 28 Explain various types of networks based on their sizes?

Answer: The size of the network is defined as the geographic area and the number of computers covered in it. Based on the size of the network they are classified as below: Local Area Network LAN : A network with a minimum of two computers to a maximum of thousands of computers within an office or a building is termed as LAN.

Generally, it works for a single site where people can share resources like printers, data storage, etc. It covers a wider area like a whole country or world. Q 29 Define various types of Internet connections? Answer: There are three types of Internet connections.

They are listed below: Broadband Connection: This type of connection gives continuous high-speed Internet. In this type, if we log off from the Internet for any reason then there is no need to log in again. For Example, Modems of cables, Fibres, wireless connection, satellite connection, etc. Wi-Fi: It is a wireless Internet connection between the devices.

It uses radio waves to connect to the devices or gadgets. It is nothing but a high-speed and advanced type of broadband connection. Q 30 A few important terminologies we come across networking concepts? Answer: Below are a few important terms we need to know in networking: Network: A set of computers or devices connected together with a communication path to share data.

Networking: The design and construction of a network are termed as networking. Link: The physical medium or the communication path through which the devices are connected in a network is called a Link. Node: The devices or the computers connected to the links are named as nodes. The basic difference between these two is that Gateway is used to control the traffic of two contradictory networks whereas the router controls the traffic of similar networks.

Protocol: A set of instructions or rules or guidelines that are used in establishing communications between computers of a network is called Protocol. Unicasting: When a piece of information or a packet is sent from a particular source to a specified destination then it is called Unicasting.

Anycasting: Sending the datagrams from a source to the nearest device among the group of servers that provide the same service as the source is termed as Anycasting. Multicasting: Sending one copy of data from a single sender to multiple clients or receivers selected clients of the networks which are in need of such data.

Broadcasting: Sending a packet to each device of the network is termed as broadcasting. Q 31 Explain the characteristics of networking? Answer: The main characteristics of networking are mentioned below: Topology: This deals with how the computers or nodes are arranged in the network. The computers are arranged physically or logically. Protocols: Deals with the process of how computers communicate with one another. Medium: This is nothing but the medium used by computers for communication.

Q 32 How many types of modes are used in data transferring through networks? Answer: Data transferring modes in computer networks are of three types. They are listed below, Simplex: Data transferring which takes place only in one direction is called Simplex.

In Simplex mode, the data gets transferred either from sender to receiver or from receiver to sender. For Example, Radio signal, the print signal given from computer to printer, etc. Half Duplex: Data transferring can happen in both directions but not at the same time. Alternatively, the data is sent and received. For Example, Browsing through the internet, a user sends the request to the server and later the server processes the request and sends back the web page.

Full Duplex: Data transferring happens in both directions that too simultaneously. Q 33 Name the different types of network topologies and brief their advantages? Answer: Network Topology is nothing but the physical or logical way in which the devices like nodes, links, and computers of a network are arranged.

Physical Topology means the actual place where the elements of a network are located. Logical Topology deals with the flow of data over the networks. A link is used to connect more than two devices of a network. And more than two links located nearby form a topology. As the devices are connected to a single cable, it is also termed as Linear Bus Topology. The advantage of bus topology is that it can be installed easily.

And the disadvantage is that if the backbone cable breaks then the whole network will be down. In this topology, the devices are not linked to each other. If a device needs to communicate with the other, then it has to send the signal or data to the central hub. And then the hub sends the same data to the destination device. The advantage of the star topology is that if a link breaks then only that particular link is affected.

The whole network remains undisturbed. The main disadvantage of the star topology is that all the devices of the network are dependent on a single point hub.

If the central hub gets failed, then the whole network gets down. Data or Signal in ring topology flow only in a single direction from one device to another and reaches the destination node. The advantage of ring topology is that it can be installed easily. Adding or deleting devices to the network is also easy.

The main disadvantage of ring topology is the data flows only in one direction. And a break at a node in the network can affect the whole network. Mesh Topology uses Routing and Flooding techniques for data transmission. The advantage of mesh topology is if one link breaks then it does not affect the whole network.

And the disadvantage is, huge cabling is required and it is expensive. Q 35 Define Piggybacking? Answer: In data transmission, if the sender sends any data frame to the receiver then the receiver should send the acknowledgment to the sender. Q 36 In how many ways the data is represented and what are they? Audio: It is nothing but the continuous sound which is different from text and numbers. Video: Continuous visual images or a combination of images.

Images: Every image is divided into pixels. And the pixels are represented using bits. Pixels may vary in size based on image resolution.

Numbers: These are converted into binary numbers and are represented using bits. Text: Text is also represented as bits. Q 38 How a Switch is different from a Hub? Answer: The time taken for a signal to reach the destination and travel back to the sender with the acknowledgment is termed as Round Trip Time RTT. Q 40 Define Brouter? Answer: Brouter or Bridge Router is a device that acts as both a bridge and a router.

As a bridge, it forwards data between the networks. And as a router, it routes the data to specified systems within a network.

It is assigned by the Internet Service Provider as a permanent address. Dynamic IP is the temporary IP address assigned by the network to a computing device. Dynamic IP is automatically assigned by the server to the network device. Q 42 How VPN is used in the corporate world?

Corporate companies, educational institutions, government offices, etc use this VPN. Q 43 What is the difference between Firewall and Antivirus? Answer: Firewall and Antivirus are two different security applications used in networking. A firewall acts as a gatekeeper which prevents unauthorized users to access the private networks as intranets.

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Define Bluetooth? Bluetooth fills the niche of very short-range communication between mobile phones, PDAs, notebook computers, and other personal or peripheral devices. For example, Bluetooth can be used to connect mobile phones to a headset, or a notebook computer to a printer. What are the four steps involves in scanning? The node sends a Probe frame. All APs within reach reply with a Probe Response frame. The node selects one of the access points, and sends that AP an Association Request frame.

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