It is worth noting that the boundaries of the range of some species are not reliably known, but the expected areas of their encounters coincide with the already indicated distribution sites for the whole genus Habitat[ edit ] Rock lizards are found in various high-altitude zones from 0 to meters above sea level and occupy a variety of landscapes: mountain-steppe, forest-steppe, mountain meadow, mountain forest, anthropogenic and coastal. By confinement to one or another habitat, they can be conditionally divided into several groups: 1 Lizards living in the forest, according to the occupied microreliefs, are divided into: adhering to rock outcrops D. As shelters, they often use rodent burrows, cavities between stones and cracks in the rocks. These habitats are adhered to by D. Such habitats have a large number of crevices and voids serving as shelters for lizards.
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Recently a paper by Busack et al. In fact Busack et al. If a case is accepted for consideration, Art A paper has been submitted which will reply to Busack et al. Heterozygosity in the bisexual taxa was very limited for this sample of proteins.
All individuals examined of each unisexual were heterozygous at loci specifying at least two of these proteins L. High levels of heterozygosity in unisexuals appears to result from the hybrid origin of the unisexuals. The exact combinations of alleles present in unisexuals would readily result from certain crosses among the bisexuals, and from no others. The first point supports the hypothesis that hybridization accounts for the observed heterozygosity, the second identifies, biochemically at least, the probable parents.
On these biochemical grounds, L. With regard to altitudinal distribution, vegetational associations and geographic distribution, each unisexual species appears to be intermediate between its putative parental species. Biogeographical considerations appear to place the age of L. It is possible that their occupancy of more extreme habitats than their parental species represents a relic ecology, reflecting the adaptations of the parental bisexual species when the unisexual species arose, rather than a weed habitat into which they moved to escape from competition with their parental species.
The fixed heterozygosity of the unisexual species of Lacerta indicates that the restitution of somatic diploidy results either from a premeiotic endoduplication without cytokinesis, or from fusion of the female pronucleus with one of the second division meiotic products of the first polar nucleus.
The first mechanism is inconsistent with the number of bivalents reported, the second is otherwise unknown in organisms in which the first polar nucleus becomes a polar body. The bisexual taxa are treated as several distinct species, four pairs of which are partly sympatric with little or no hybridization. Morphological and ecological differences between the other taxa are so great that there seems little question about specific distinctness.
The degree of biochemical and morphological difference between these non-sympatric taxa is as great as that between those that do occur sympatrically without fusing.
The formation of parthenogenetic species as a result of past hybridization between some pairs indicates a great selective disadvantage to these pairs of hybridizing, and is thus compelling evidence that the two members of each pair are not conspecific. Moritz, C. This permitted identification of the sexual species that acted as the maternal parent of the various hybrid-parthenogenetic lineages.
Lacerta mixta was the maternal parent for both L. The maternal ancestry of L. The sample of L. The parthenogenetic species all had very low nucleotide diversity in absolute terms and in comparison to their sexual relatives.
The close similarity between mtDNAs from the parthenogenetic species and their respective sexual maternal ancestor species provides strong evidence for the recent origin of the parthenogens. The low diversity of the parthenogens indicates that few females were involved in their origins; the maternal parents of L.
The patterns of mtDNA variation in Lacerta are very similar to those in Cnemidophorus and Heteronotia, establishing recent and geographically restricted origins as a general feature of parthenogenetic lizards. Arribas, O. Teil II. Die Gattung Darevskia. Besides short presentations of the single species and hints on their distribution and habitats, also some systematic remarks are given.
Arnold, E. Relationships within the species of Lacertini are explored using mtDNA bp cytochrome b; bp 12S rRNA for 59 nominal species, and reanalysis of the data of Harris et al. The morphology of the tribe is reviewed and 64 of its characters equivalent to 83 binary ones also used to assess relationships. The Lacertini are assigned to 19 monophyletic units of 1 to 27 species, recognised here as the following genera contents are indicated in brackets : Algyroides, Anatololacerta gen.
Neither DNA nor morphology indicates that the archaeolacertas sometimes formalised as Archaeolacerta sens. Instead, they are representatives of an ecomorph associated with living on rock exposures and using the narrow crevices that these contain. The Lacertidae probably arose in the European area, with the Gallotiinae later reaching Northwest Africa and the Canary Islands, and the ancestor of the Eremiadini invading Africa in the mid-Miocene.
The Lacertini spread through much of their present European range and diversified, perhaps largely by repeated vicariance, around 12—16 My ago, producing the ancestors of the present mainly small-bodied genera, which then underwent often modest speciation. Three units spread more widely: the Lacerta-Timon clade of large-bodied lizards probably dispersed earliest, followed by Algyroides and then Podarcis.
Overall, European Lacertidae show a pattern of repeated spread, often accompanied by restriction of previous groups. Expansion of Lacertini may have displaced earlier lacertid lineages from all or much of Europe; while spread of Podarcis may have restricted many other genera of Lacertini.
The earlier expansion of the Lacerta-Timon clade probably did not have this effect, as difference in adult body size restricted competitive interaction with other forms. Several invasions of more distant areas also occurred: of East Asia by Takydromus over 10 My ago, and more recently of northwest Africa by Podarcis, Scelarcis and Timon, and Madeira by Teira.
They indicate relatively mesic forms may have diversified widely across Africa and given rise to at least three independent invasions of arid habitats. MtDNA also indicates that Lacerta andreanskyi belongs in the Eremiadini and may occupy a basal position there.
It is assigned to a further new genus, Atlantolacerta gen. Ahmadzadeh, F. This may be especially relevant when dealing with cryptic species or species complexes, where high overallresemblance between species is coupled with comparatively high morphological variation within populations. Rock lizards, genus Darevskia, are such an example, as many of its members offer few diagnostic morphological features.
Herein, we use a combination of genetic, morphological and ecological criteria to delimit cryptic species within two species complexes, D. Our analyses are based on molecular information from two nuclear and two mitochondrial genes, morphological data 15 morphometric, 16 meristic and four categorical characters and eleven newly calculated spatial environmental predictors. The phylogeny inferred for Darevskia confirmed monophyly of each species complex, with each of them comprising several highly divergent clades, especially when compared to other congeners.
We identified seven candidate species within each complex, of which three and four species were supported by Bayesian species delimitation within D. Trained with genetically determined clades, Ecological Niche Modeling provided additional support for these cryptic species. Especially those within the D. Due to overall morphological resemblance, in a first approach PCA with mixed variables only showed the separation between the two complexes.
However, MANCOVA and subsequent Discriminant Analysis performed separately for both complexes allowed for distinction of the species when sample size was large enough, namely within the D.
In conclusion, the results support four new species, which are described herein.
DAREVSKIA CHLOROGASTER PDF
Recently a paper by Busack et al. In fact Busack et al. If a case is accepted for consideration, Art A paper has been submitted which will reply to Busack et al.
Species was not fully specified, species name missing!
Malazil In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies. Find more photos by Google images search: Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. Darevskia chlorogaster is a lizard species in the genus Darevskia. Tree trunks and forest floor within the Hyrcanian forest. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Annotated checklist and distribution of the lizards of Iran.