He named the questionnaire after Epworth Hospital in Melbourne, where he established the Epworth Sleep Centre in The ESS is a self-administered questionnaire with 8 questions. Respondents are asked to rate, on a 4-point scale , their usual chances of dozing off or falling asleep while engaged in eight different activities. Most people engage in those activities at least occasionally, although not necessarily every day. The ESS score the sum of 8 item scores, can range from 0 to
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Manni F. Within the context of a multicentric average sleep propensity during real-life situations, taken as an national study on narcolepsy Gruppo Italiano Narcolessia indicator of daytime sleepiness . The with idiopathic hypersomnia, and 22 with other sleep, neuro- scale has been increasingly used in Italy even without a vali- logic or psychiatric disorders.
ESS scores were inversely cor- dated version: a non-systematic survey in Italian sleep centres related with mean sleep latency values, as measured with revealed at least a dozen different versions in use. ESS cut-off scores with best sen- The aim of this study was to provide a validated version sitivity and specificity were 12 and For the 8-min MSLT cut-off, sensitivity was participating in a national multicentric study on narcolepsy.
The Italian version of the ESS is an easy-to-use form useful for preliminary screen- ing of daytime sleepiness level in specialist settings. Each item can received 0—3 points, thus the final score ranges from 0 to The proposed range for normal subjects is 0—10 .
The English text of the ESS  was translated into Italian by an expert sleep medicine doctor and back translated into English by a mother tongue professional translator blinded with respect to the original version. Adherence to the original text was assessed by a third sleep medicine doctor. The final Italian version L. Adult subjects attending of 17 Italian sleep centres were C. Vignatelli et al. The study protocol was approved time sleepiness EDS.
The MSLT was performed and scored by the ethics committees of each participating centre. Sensitivity and speci- Diagnosis was made on clinical and, if needed, on neurophysiolog- ficity were used to calculate positive and negative likelihood ratios L. Final diagnosis included narcolepsy 34 sub- . The area under the ROC curve ficient sleep syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb describes the overall predictive ability of the test.
The ROC curves were used to score was Best simultane- 10, third quartile Mean sleep latency was s SD ous sensitivity and specificity were chosen conventionally consid- s, range 60— s, median , first quartile , third quar- ering the greatest distance between the ROC curve and the line of tile When ESS scores were plotted against mean sleep identity as indicator.
Areas under the ROC curves were 0. The great- years; standard deviation, No difference for exploring the value of a diagnostic test. The validation of ESS validity by educational level subgroups was observed was carried out on a group of prospectively recruited sub- data not shown. A limitation ty inventory, SWAI ; and the questionnaire on sleepi- could be the pre-selection of subjects according to four cate- ness-related symptoms  have been validated; they may gories of diagnostic suspicion, in order to recruit 3 subjects contribute to explore other aspects of sleepiness.
For this reason, our sample cannot be ferent ESS scores are shown according to different baseline deemed representative of a general population and our probabilities of EDS. Nevertheless, the measures of validity found will be probability positive predictive value of EDS in settings with accurate in estimating EDS in a specialist setting.
Another low or high pre-test probability prevalence of EDS. EDS like, for instance, the general population and a sleep In the literature, the validity of ESS in estimating EDS is centre, respectively ; 2 in settings with high pre-test proba- a matter of debate.
In sub-samples of specific sleep disorders, acteristics of validity as the English version, and can be use- validity is more controversial: some authors did not find any ful for the preliminary screening of daytime sleepiness level correlation between ESS and MSLT in OSAS patients [17, in specialist settings. Optimal cut-offs must be tailored to the 18] whereas in post-traumatic hypersomnia ESS showed different diagnostic purposes. The field of exploration and quantification of sleepiness can be considered still rough.
Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna ; Fassari V, common life situations . Martino, L. Mondino Neurologic, Pavia ; pital employees. Johns MW Rethinking the assessment of sleepiness.
Sleep — Thorpy MT The clinical use of the multiple sleep latency test. Sleep Epworth sleepiness scale ESS. Metz CE Rockit 0. In A basic science for clinical medicine. J Psychosomatic Res — 34 con narcolessia, 16 con sindrome delle apnee ostruttive Olson LG, Cole MF, Ambrogetti A Correlations among del sonno, 19 con ipersonnia idiopatica, 22 con altri disturbi Epworth sleepiness scale scores, multiple sleep latency tests confondenti o del sonno o neurologici o psichiatrici.
Il pun- and psychological symptoms. Neurology — A medicolegal dilemma. Neurology — sonnolenza diurna in ambito specialistico. Nat Med — Sleep 5:S67—S72 References Electroencephalogr Clin sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale. Sleep — Neurophysiol — 2. Johns MW Reliability and factor analysis of the Sleep — ity inventory: a self-report measure of daytime sleepiness.
Respiration related to excessive daytime sleepiness. Neuroepidemiology — — 5.
Epworth Sleepiness Scale
About the ESS
Russamento e Apnea
Translation of "Escala de Somnolencia Epworth" in English