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Shelves: classics I am convinced that people who complain about Kants philosophy, who claim that his writing is dry and that his thought consists in detached intellectualizations with no real bearing on everyday human existence have never paid any attention to his work on religion. Perhaps nowhere is this more true than in what is sometimes called the Parable of the Righteous Atheist in the Critique of the Power of Judgment. Here we find Kant struggling with the human need for significance, the limits of human understanding, and the need to reconcile our natural with our rational selves.
Religion Within the Limits of Mere Reason has largely been neglected as much by professional philosophers as by Kant scholars for the past two hundred years. It has alternatively been dismissed as a mere attempt to appease the religious authorities of his time, lambasted as an incoherent mess incompatible with the rest of his critical philosophy, or explained away as a concession to his devout manservant Lampe.
Only in the last couple of decades have English-language commentators finally begun paying it the attention that it deserves. The first two of these pieces are primarily concerned with questions of individual salvation and so function as an extension of the critical moral philosophy. Here, Kant asks whether human beings are good or evil by nature. Against the prevailing optimism of Enlightenment thinkers, he claims that human beings are, by nature, fundamentally evil.
Although we have a disposition to the good, he thinks that we are at the same time naturally corrupted by a propensity to evil. This propensity is not to be identified with mere sensibility as the Stoics believed, but rather designates a tendency on the part of the human will to subordinate the Moral Law to the motives of sensibility.
Thus phrased, the question is not merely how one might change their behaviour, but how one might undergo a change of heart.
In his view, we can conceive of such an ideal only through the idea of a person suffering through the worst trials, and yet nonetheless vanquishing the temptation of the evil principle. This idea of moral perfection, which we cannot help but to think of as the Prototype of Humanity as God intended it, is necessarily postulated by pure practical reason as a condition of possibility of moral conversion.
Only by practical faith in the Prototype of Humanity can we adopt for ourselves the good disposition and undergo the change of heart required if we are to become well-pleasing to God.
Kant maintains that even after a change of heart, the moral convert is always in danger of falling again under the domination of the evil principle through the corrupting influence of others.
It is therefore his duty to extricate himself from this precarious situation. In his view, this can only be achieved by establishing what he calls an Ethical Community—that is, a society organized under freely adopted laws of virtue. Thus, the concept of an Ethical Community is just the concept of a People of God obeying moral laws, which is to say that it is the concept of a Church.
Recalling the doctrine of historical progress set forth in his essay on Perpetual Peace, Kant argues that historical religious traditions contain a drive toward the universal religion of reason. There is thus a continuous and gradual progress toward an ever-expanding Ethical Community, which we can understand as the coming of the Kingdom of God on earth. Kant maintains that the administrators of a visible historical church serve also the invisible moral Church only when they tailor their teachings to the dictates of pure practical reason.
Similarly, the exegesis of sacred texts must take its guidance from the Moral Law, such that the stories and prescriptions found in scripture are never interpreted in such a way as to conflict with pure rational religion.
The point is not that religious authorities ought to modify the meaning of certain passages, but that human reason is able to discover moral truths and that moral truths, as moral, cannot possibly contradict the will of God. Thus, passages that appear to conflict with this will must be reframed. Unlike, say, the Critique of Pure Reason or the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals , which remain in very large part philsoophically viable, Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason is more obviously a product of its time.
Nonetheless, it remains an indispensable read for anyone interested in the philosophy and sociology of religion. A charitable reading of the book, which highlights its historical value, is that it constitutes one of the first attempts to outline a modernized religious faith—that is, a religious faith that remains plausible under modern conditions.
For one, interpretation of religion as satisfying moral and existential needs of human beings anticipates the sociological theories of Feuerbach and Durkheim, and is corroborated by much contemporary psychology. Finally, his harsh critique of fundamentalism—which he calls "enthusiasm," Schwarmerei—is ever relevant in an age marked by increasing religious excesses.
DIE RELIGION INNERHALB DER GRENZEN DER BLOEN VERNUNFT PDF
Vuktilar If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? Kant saw the development of reason as a collective possession of the human species, a product of nature working through human history. Die Grenzeb obiger Ausgabe wird in dieser Neuausgabe als Marginalie zeilengenau mitgefuhrt. At the age of 74, most philosophers who are still active are engaged in consolidating and defending views they have already worked out. Write a customer review. Get to Know Us.
Die Religion Innerhalb Der Grenzen Der Bloen Vernunft
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KANT DIE RELIGION INNERHALB DER GRENZEN DER BLOEN VERNUNFT PDF