These are called technical contradictions by Altshuller. He also defined so-called physical or inherent contradictions: More of one thing and less of the same thing may both be desired in the same system. For instance, a higher temperature may be needed to melt a compound more rapidly, but a lower temperature may be needed to achieve a homogeneous mixture. An inventive situation which challenges us to be inventive, might involve several such contradictions. Conventional solutions typically "trade" one contradictory parameter for another; no special inventiveness is needed for that.
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These are called technical contradictions by Altshuller. He also defined so-called physical or inherent contradictions: More of one thing and less of the same thing may both be desired in the same system. For instance, a higher temperature may be needed to melt a compound more rapidly, but a lower temperature may be needed to achieve a homogeneous mixture.
An inventive situation which challenges us to be inventive, might involve several such contradictions. Conventional solutions typically "trade" one contradictory parameter for another; no special inventiveness is needed for that. Rather, the inventor would develop a creative approach for resolving the contradiction, such as inventing an engine that produces more acceleration without increasing the cost of the engine.
Inventive principles and the matrix of contradictions[ edit ] Altshuller screened patents in order to find out what kind of contradictions were resolved or dissolved by the invention and the way this had been achieved.
From this he developed a set of 40 inventive principles and later a matrix of contradictions. Columns refer to typical undesired results. Each matrix cell points to principles that have been most frequently used in patents in order to resolve the contradiction. For instance, Dolgashev mentions the following contradiction: increasing accuracy of measurement of machined balls while avoiding the use of expensive microscopes and elaborate control equipment.
The matrix cell in row "accuracy of measurement" and column "complexity of control" points to several principles, among them the Copying Principle, which states, "Use a simple and inexpensive optical copy with a suitable scale instead of an object that is complex, expensive, fragile or inconvenient to operate. A screen with a grid might provide the required measurement.
As mentioned above, Altshuller abandoned this method of defining and solving "technical" contradictions in the mid s and instead used SuField modeling and the 76 inventive standards and a number of other tools included in the algorithm for solving inventive problems, ARIZ.
Laws of technical system evolution[ edit ] Main article: Laws of technical systems evolution Altshuller also studied the way technical systems have been developed and improved over time. From this, he discovered several trends so called Laws of Technical Systems Evolution that help engineers predict the most likely improvements that can be made to a given product. The most important of these laws involves the ideality of a system. Substance-field analysis[ edit ] One more technique that is frequently used by inventors involves the analysis of substances, fields and other resources that are currently not being used and that can be found within the system or nearby.
TRIZ uses non-standard definitions for substances and fields. Altshuller developed methods to analyze resources; several of his invention principles involve the use of different substances and fields that help resolve contradictions and increase ideality of a technical system.
For instance, videotext systems used television signals to transfer data, by taking advantage of the small time segments between TV frames in the signals. SuField analysis produces a structural model of the initial technological system, exposes its characteristics, and with the help of special laws, transforms the model of the problem.
Through this transformation the structure of the solution that eliminates the shortcomings of the initial problem is revealed. SuField analysis is a special language of formulas with which it is possible to easily describe any technological system in terms of a specific structural model. A model produced in this manner is transformed according to special laws and regularities, thereby revealing the structural solution of the problem.
ARIZ - algorithm of inventive problems solving[ edit ] ARIZ Russian acronym of алгоритм решения изобретательских задач - АРИЗ algorithm of inventive problems solving is a list of about 85 step-by-step procedures to solve complicated invention problems, where other tools of TRIZ alone Sufield analysis , 40 inventive principles , etc. Starting with an updated matrix of contradictions, semantic analysis, subcategories of inventive principles and lists of scientific effects, some new interactive applications are other attempts to simplify the problem formulation phase and the transition from a generic problem to a whole set of specific solutions.
See the external links for details. Use of TRIZ on Management Problems[ edit ] Although TRIZ was developed from the analysis of technical systems, it has been used widely as a method for understanding and solving complex management problems.
Examples include finding additional cost savings for the legal department of a local government body: the inventive solution generated was to generate additional revenue [insert reference to cost-cutting in local government case study]. TRIZ is now an obligatory skill set if you want to advance within Samsung". The Association holds conferences with associated publications.
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TRIZ for Engineers: Enabling Inventive Problem Solving