During that decennium many and very important additions to our knowledge of Gainism and its history have been made by a small number of excellent scholars. The text of the canonical books, together with good commentaries in Sanskrit and Guzerati, has been made accessible in fair editions published by native scholars in India. Critical editions of two of them have been published by Professors Leumann [1] and Hoernle [2]; and the latter scholar has added a careful translation and ample illustrations to his edition of the text. A general survey of the whole Gaina literature has been given by Professor Weber in his catalogue of the Berlin Manuscripts [3] and in his learned treatise [4] on the sacred literature of the Gainas. The development of Gaina learning and science has been studied by Professor Leumann, and some Gaina legends and their relations to those of the Brahmans and Buddhists have been investigated by the same scholar [5].

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Painted in opaque watercolour and ink on paper Dimensions Length: This canonical text set out the rules of behaviour for the monastic community. Jain monks have traditionally been supported by a much larger lay community, who gained spiritual merit by commissioning manuscripts, which were preserved in temple libraries. Jainism has two sects, Shvetambara and Digambara, and the illustrated manuscript to which this folio belongs was painted for Jains of the Shvetambara sect.

Surviving Jain manuscripts show that a distinctive Western Indian painting style had developed by the 12th century. The earliest Jain manuscripts were written on palm leaf with painted wooden covers but during the 14th century paper came into general use for illustrated manuscripts. One feature that can be seen in this manuscript is the interruption of the text with a lozenge-shaped blank space to allow for the perforation of a binding cord. In fact, no such hole has been made.

This is a reminder that medieval paper manuscripts in this format were still following in some respects the conventions of the long narrow strips of the palm-leaf manuscript. This manuscript bears a later colophon stating that it was produced at Stambhatirtha in Cambay on the Gujarat coast, which was a major port and hub of Jain mercantile activity.

Descriptive line Manuscript page, Uttaradhyayanasutra Sutra, ink and paint on paper, Gujarat, Jain, ca. Guy, J. Balbir, N. London, British Library and Institute of Jainology, Vol 1, pp.



An understanding of celibacy, argues Carl Olson, can be a useful way to view the significance of the human body within a social context. The purpose of this book is to examine how the practice of celibacy differs cross-culturally as well as historically within a particular religious tradition. The essays all previously unpublished will demonstrate that celibacy is a complex religious phenomenon. The control of sexual desire can be used to divorce oneself from a basic human biological drive, to separate oneself from what is perceived as impure, or to distance oneself from a transient world.



Listen to me. Though his body be weakened by hunger, a monk who is strong in self-control and does penance, should not cut or cause another to cut anything to be eaten , nor cook it or cause another to cook it. Though overcome by thirst, he should drink no cold water, restrained by shame and aversion from forbidden things ; he should try to get distilled 8 water. If a restrained, austere ascetic occasionally suffers from cold on his wanderings, he should not walk beyond the prescribed time, remembering the teaching of the Jina. If he suffers from the heat of hot things, or from the heat of his body, or from the heat of summer, he should not lament the loss of comfort.

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