DEEP ECOLOGY ARNE NAESS PDF

It depicts the personal self as existing in competition with and in opposition to nature. Freya Matthew Deep ecologists claim that before knowing what we ought to do, we must understand who we really are. Michael Zimmerman Deep Ecology Introduction Deep Ecology is a movement which promotes an awareness of the oneness and interconnection of all life and its cycles of change and transformation. Life is fundamentally one.

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It depicts the personal self as existing in competition with and in opposition to nature. Freya Matthew Deep ecologists claim that before knowing what we ought to do, we must understand who we really are. Michael Zimmerman Deep Ecology Introduction Deep Ecology is a movement which promotes an awareness of the oneness and interconnection of all life and its cycles of change and transformation. Life is fundamentally one. The deep ecology movement is the ecology movement which questions deeper.

The dynamic unity of reality is not a new idea, its foundation lies with the ancient philosophers. For thousands of years, philosophers have gazed at the stars and known that One thing must exist that is common to and connects the Many things within the Universe. As Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz profoundly says; Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. Leibniz, Albert Einstein also had a good understanding of humans as an inseparable part of the One, as he writes; A human being is part of the whole called by us universe We experience ourselves, our thoughts and feelings as something separate from the rest.

A kind of optical delusion of consciousness. This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest to us. Our task must be to free ourselves from the prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty. The true value of a human being is determined by the measure and the sense in which they have obtained liberation from the self.

We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if humanity is to survive. Albert Einstein Unfortunately and tragically , this knowledge of our interconnection to the Universe Nature, God has been lost or is naively considered as not important to modern day humanity. Lawrence writes. This webpage on Deep Ecology a subject I find fascinating - from reading their ideas I realised I was a deep ecologist without realising it! I look forward to having more time to spend working on this page in the future!

For now, hope you enjoy the following quotes from Deep Ecologists and philosophers that I have enjoyed and collected. I hope to write up these quotes from the foundation of the Metaphysics of Space and Wave Structure of Matter. Sermons seldom hinder us from pursuing our self-interest, so we need to be a little more enlightened about what our self-interest is.

It would not occur to me, for example, to exhort you to refrain from cutting off your leg. Well, so are the trees in the Amazon Basin; they are our external lungs. We are just beginning to wake up to that. We are gradually discovering that we are our world.

Joanna Macy We are enabled to apprehend at all what is sublime and noble only by the perpetual instilling and drenching of the reality that surrounds us. We can never have enough of nature. Henry David Thoreau When we speak of Nature it is wrong to forget that we are ourselves a part of Nature.

We ought to view ourselves with the same curiosity and openness with which we study a tree, the sky or a thought, because we too are linked to the entire universe. Henri Matisse.. Warwick Fox, The prefix eco for "ecology" is therefore more appropriate for my purposes than the adjective environmental because the kind of approach that I will be developing herein is one that attempts to break down the rigid distinctions that we tend to draw between ourselves and our environment.

Instead of seeking to maintain these distinctions, this approach attempts to foster a greater awareness of the intimate and manifold relationships that exist between what we conventionally designate as self and what we conventionally designate as environment.

Warwick Fox, The basic pattern of life is a network. Whenever you see life, you see networks. And the world of bacteria is critical to the details of these feedback processes, because bacteria play a crucial role in the regulation of the whole Gaian system.

Fritjof Capra, The Web of Life, New York: Anchor Books, Organisms, ways of life, and interactions in the biosphere in general, exhibit complexity of such an astoundingly high level as to color the general outlook of ecologists. Such complexity makes thinking in terms of vast systems inevitable. It also makes for a keen, steady perception of the profound human ignorance of biospherical relationships and therefore of the effect of disturbances.

Fox, Towards a Transpersonal Ecology, Individuals do not exist in isolation, but in relationship and that individual existents are unique and irreplaceable in the future by virtue of the special set of relationships in which only they are and can remain embedded.

The world is therefore seen in organismic terms rather than mechanical ones, in terms of interacting processes and fields rather than isolated things, and socially, in terms of an extended ecological community rather than in terms of essentially separate, competing individuals.

Alan Drengson, Fox, Deep Ecology is rooted in a perception of reality that goes beyond the scientific framework to an intuitive awareness of the oneness of all life, the interdependence of its multiple manifestations and its cycles of change and transformation.

When the concept of the human spirit is understood in this sense, its mode of consciousness in which the individual feels connected to the cosmos as a whole, it becomes clear that ecological awareness is truly spiritual. Indeed the idea of the individual being linked to the cosmos is expressed in the Latin root of the word religion, religare to bind strongly , as well as the Sanskrit yoga, which means union.

It sets up ecology as a model for the basic metaphysical structure of the world, seeing the identities of all things- whether at the level of elementary particles, organisms, or galaxies- as logically interconnected: all things are constituted by their relations with other things.. I am, of course, partially constituted by these immediate physical and mental structures, but I am also constituted by my ecological relations with the elements of my environment- relations in the image of which the structures of my body and consciousness are built.

I am a holistic element of my native ecosystem, and of any wider wholes under which that ecosystem is subsumed.. From the point of view of deep ecology, what is wrong with our culture is that it offers us an inaccurate conception of the self. It depicts the personal self as existing in competition with and in opposition to nature [We fail to realise that] if we destroy our environment, we are destroying what is in fact our larger self.

I am convinced that such a quasi-religious movement, one concerned with the need to change the values that now govern much of human activity, is essential to the persistence of our civilisation. Paul Ehrlich, p All that is my universe is not merely mine; it is me. And I shall defend myself. I shall defend myself not only against overt aggression but also against gratuitous insult John Livingston Every living being is connected intimately, and from this intimacy follows the capacity of identification and as its natural consequences, practice of non-violence..

Now is the time to share with all life on our maltreated earth through the deepening identification with life forms and the greater units, the ecosystems, and Gaia, the fabulous, old planet of ours. Arne Naess.. When we realise we that we are united to the whole alienation drops away and we identify more widely with the world of which we are apart.

Fox, As we discover our ecological self we will joyfully defend and interact with that with which we identify; and instead of imposing environmental ethics on people, we will naturally respect, love, honor and protect that which is our self.. Extending awareness and receptivity with other animals and mountains and rivers encourages identification and engenders respect for and solidarity with the field of identification.

Bill Devall Fox, What identifies us in terms of certain cultural patterns does not exhaust the richer possibilities that each of us contains. What deep ecology directs us toward, then, is neither an environmental axiology or theory of environmental ethics nor a minor reform of existing practices.

It directs us to develop our own sense of self until it becomes Self, that is, until we realise through deepening ecological sensibilities that each of us forms a union with the natural world, and that protection of the natural world is protection of ourselves.

Alan Drengson Fox, In the light of the foregoing analysis, we can say that to determine what kinds of behavior are morally appropriate, we must know what we ourselves are and other beings are. In other words, ontology precedes ethics.. Deep ecologists claim that before knowing what we ought to do, we must understand who we really are. One experiences oneself to be a genuine part of all life.. We are not outside the rest of nature and therefore cannot do with is as we please without changing ourselves Paleontology reveals..

The nature and limitation of this unity can be debated. Still, this is something basic. For transpersonal ecologists, this kind of response to the fact of our interconnectedness with the world represents a natural i. Indeed, given a deep enough understanding of this fact, we can scarcely refrain from responding in this way.

This is why one finds transpersonal ecologists making statements to the effect that they are more concerned with ontology or cosmology i. Fox, They underlie the egoisms, attachments, and exclusivity that find personal, corporate, national and international expression in possessiveness, greed, exploitation, war and ecocide.

As an antidote to these poisons, transpersonal ecologists emphasise the importance of setting personally based identification firmly within the context of ontologically and cosmically based identification - forms of identification that lead to impartial identification with all entities.

In terms of politics and lifestyles, the latter, transpersonal forms of identification are expressed in actions that tend to promote symbiosis. That the self advances and confirms the myriad things is called delusion. That the myriad things advance and confirm the self is enlightenment.

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Deep Ecology

The Tvergastein hut in the Hallingskarvet massif played an important role in Ecosophy T, as "T" is said to represent his mountain hut Tvergastein. Though the demonstrators were carried away by police and the dam was eventually built, the demonstration launched a more activist phase of Norwegian environmentalism. Olav for socially useful work. This was an application of set theory to the problems of language interpretation, extending the work of semanticists such as Charles Kay Ogden in The Meaning of Meaning.

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What is Deep Ecology?

What is Deep Ecology? Since becoming the youngest ever professor of philosophy at the University of Oslo whilst still in his twenties, Arne Naess has revealed his brilliance by studying and writing extensively in many fields, including semantics, philosophy of science, and the works of Spinoza and Gandhi. But he is much more than an academic. A key influence in his long life has been his deep relationship to Hallingskarvet mountain in central Norway, where, in , he built a simple cabin at the place called Tvergastein crossed stones. There he lived looking out on that vast, wild panorama, reading Gandhi or Spinoza and studying Sanskrit.

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Some Thought on the Deep Ecology Movement

Walter Schwarz Published on Thu 15 Jan A keen mountaineer, for a quarter of his life he lived in an isolated hut high in the Hallingskarvet mountains in southern Norway. Indeed, humans could only attain "realisation of the Self" as part of an entire ecosphere. He urged the green movement to "not only protect the planet for the sake of humans, but also, for the sake of the planet itself, to keep ecosystems healthy for their own sake".

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Deep ecology

Those already involved in conservation and preservation efforts were now joined by many others concerned about the detrimental environmental effects of modern industrial technology. In his talk, he discussed the longer-range background of the ecology movement and its concern with an ethic respecting nature and the inherent worth of other beings. As a mountaineer who had climbed all over the world, Naess had enjoyed the opportunity to observe political and social activism in diverse cultures. Both historically and in the contemporary movement, Naess saw two different forms of environmentalism, not necessarily incompatible with each other. The short-term, shallow approach stops before the ultimate level of fundamental change, often promoting technological fixes e. The long-range deep approach involves redesigning our whole systems based on values and methods that truly preserve the ecological and cultural diversity of natural systems. The distinguishing and original characteristics of the deep ecology movement were its recognition of the inherent value of all living beings and the use of this view in shaping environmental policies.

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