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After the death of Nader Shah r. Numerous self-ruling khanates with various forms of autonomy      emerged in the area. The rulers of these khanates were directly related to the ruling dynasties of Iran, and were vassals and subjects of the Iranian shah. The resulting Treaty of Turkmenchay , forced Qajar Iran to cede sovereignty over the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate and the remainder of the Lankaran Khanate ,  comprising the last parts of the soil of the contemporary Azerbaijani Republic that were still in Iranian hands.
Qajar Iran was forced to cede its Caucasian territories to Russia in the 19th century, which thus included the territory of the modern-day Azerbaijan Republic, while as a result of that cession, the Azerbaijani ethnic group is nowadays parted between two nations: Iran and Azerbaijan.
It was followed by the March Days massacres   that took place between 30 March and 2 April in the city of Baku and adjacent areas of the Baku Governorate of the Russian Empire.
Although the bulk of the newly formed Azerbaijani army was engaged in putting down an Armenian revolt that had just broken out in Karabakh , Azerbaijanis did not surrender their brief independence of —20 quickly or easily. As many as 20, Azerbaijani soldiers died resisting what was effectively a Russian reconquest. On the other hand, Armenia was awarded the region of Zangezur and Turkey agreed to return Gyumri then known as Alexandropol.
By the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in February , the commitment of more than workers and employees of the oil industry of Azerbaijan were awarded orders and medals. Approximately , people with over , of them women went to the front, while the total population of Azerbaijan was 3.
More than Azerbaijanis were named Heroes of the Soviet Union. He was reelected to a third term as president in October