Related Entries 1. Both treatises examine the conditions in which praise or blame are appropriate, and the nature of pleasure and friendship; near the end of each work, we find a brief discussion of the proper relationship between human beings and the divine. Though the general point of view expressed in each work is the same, there are many subtle differences in organization and content as well. Clearly, one is a re-working of the other, and although no single piece of evidence shows conclusively what their order is, it is widely assumed that the Nicomachean Ethics is a later and improved version of the Eudemian Ethics. Perhaps the most telling indication of this ordering is that in several instances the Nicomachean Ethics develops a theme about which its Eudemian cousin is silent. The remainder of this article will therefore focus on this work.

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Eudemian Ethics of the topics is different but there is perhaps no striking discrepancy of view. In conclusion there is a glance at Theoria, the activity of Speculative Wisdom, as the highest life of man; at Book II.

There is nothing corresponding to the full treatment of Theoria as the consummation of human well-being that is given in N.

Text, MSS. Aristotle, the 10th c. Laurentianus denoted by the sign Kb and the 12th c. Parisiensis Lb ; we derive it chiefly from Vaticanus Pb , a 13th c. Marcianus Mb , not so good a text as Pb but an indispensable adjunct to it—according to Jackson, who refers to the text of these two mss.

The 13th c. Latin translation attributed to William of Moerbeke follows the Greek very closely, and is almost equivalent to another ms. The earliest printed edition of Aristotle is the Aldine, Venice The foundation of all modern work on the text is the monumental Berlin edition, with a Latin translation, scholia and indices, published by the Academia Regia Borussica in and the following years.

The text, edited by Bekker, forms Volumes I. The Teubner text of Susemihl Leipzig has useful critical notes, collecting the corrections of other scholars published in the learned journals.


Eudemian Ethics

Eudemian ethics of Aristotle is not so popular as his Nicomachean ethics partly because it describes an analytical model of virtue — concept of the Mean. The virtues of being and ethical approaches to virtues have been considered by philosophers since early times. Courage is one of classical examples in ethical models, and Aristotle used courage as one of the best examples to describe his concept of the Mean. Evidences of this approach can be found throughout the texts of Plutarch. Usually, it is common to claim that this philosopher outlined several types of courage, according to reasons which raise it.


The Eudemian Ethics

It is in the hands of each individual, he argues in these books on personal ethics, to develop a character which bases a life on virtue, with positive but moderate habits. The Nicomachean Ethics, the primary work, the title is said to come from his son Nicomachus and is generally regarded as having been essentially notes for lectures is divided into ten books. It opens with a statement on who should study ethics and why, and that the pursuance of moral virtue leads to happiness. Courage, temperance, magnanimity, honesty, friendship are among the many qualities considered.


Aristotle’s Ethics

The Nicomachean Ethics is very often abbreviated "NE", or "EN", and books and chapters are generally referred to by Roman and Arabic numerals, respectively, along with corresponding Bekker numbers. Thus, "NE II. It is suggested that around three NE books were lost and were replaced by three parallel works from the Eudemian Ethics, explaining the overlap. Many believe that these works were not put into their current form by Aristotle himself, but by an editor sometime later. If there are several virtues then the best and most complete or perfect of them will be the happiest one.

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